Proms 2010: Cage, Cardew, Skempton and Feldman

by 5:4

A few hours after the bizarre final notes of Arvo Pärt’s Symphony No. 4 had faded away, the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and conductor Ilan Volkov came to the Royal Albert Hall to present the Proms with a late-night performance of rather more experimental fare.

They began with one of John Cage‘s most important early works, the percussion sextet First Construction (in Metal). The word ‘construction’ couldn’t be more apt; Cage really went to town on the structure of the work, all of it based around the proportions 4 : 3 : 2 : 3 : 4. Composed in 1939, it would be another decade before Cage would begin his written dialogue with Boulez, but such scrupulous, numerically-based structures foreshadow what would become central to the French composer’s own compositional preoccupations. For all their intricacy, however, First Construction‘s structuralisations are not particularly audible, not that this militates against the work in any significant way. The instrumentation is so colourful, their deployment so brash and fanciful, that it’s simply a non-stop joy to behold, moving from passages of mechanised regularity to more rhythmically obscure material, where the pulse is harder to perceive. What’s most striking, though, is how fresh it continues to sound: 71 years young.

A few decades even younger is Cornelius Cardew‘s splendidly-titled Bun No. 1, a piece that dispenses with any percussion. While the use of only pitched instruments may suggest a more melodic compositional angle, the Webernesque opening—material rapidly passed between players—dismisses such notions. What does become immediately clear, though, is that each of the players is, to some extent, treated as a soloist, and Cardew’s textures are all the more intricate as a result. No, more than that, they’re downright complex; recognisable ideas, even motifs, are in short supply, Bun No. 1 being among the most obtuse, even impenetrable, music heard in any of this Proms season’s premières. Gestures, gestures, everywhere; and while this keeps the listener at something of a distance—the piece has an aloof, elevated tone—the sheer earnestness of Cardew’s compositional manner is compelling, inviting a sense of trust in the music. It’s paradoxical really, to feel, on the one hand, engaged and fascinated at each passing sound-shape, and yet equally to feel as though one is separated, watching from afar something important but (in part at least) incomprehensible taking place. Despite being a “bun” (and Calum McDonald’s fine programme note elaborates this title), Cardew hands us precisely nothing on a plate; i, for one, welcome the paradox and the difficulty.

Cardew’s most well-known pupil, Howard Skempton, is represented by his most well-known work, Lento. My usual practice, when reviewing these concerts, is to jot down notes and ideas while listening, but with this piece, i was forced—as i have been, i think, every time i’ve heard it—to stop and just listen. It’s so difficult to find words to do justice to Lento; Skempton’s remarkable achievement is not simply in creating a piece that’s beautiful (it is beautiful, incredibly so), but in the perfectly balanced way one chord follows another, shifting between minor and major inflections. The four brief episodes that interject only enhance the sense of unity, the first of which, to my mind, being the most delicious, with gorgeously rich deep brass and bassoons. Ultimately, not one note sounds out of place here, and that Skempton is able to achieve this through numerous cycling repetitions of just a few simple ideas, is truly astonishing.

Quite how it’s taken the final piece in the concert, Morton Feldman‘s Piano and Orchestra, 35 years to be heard in London is beyond me, although English ears are perhaps traditionally not the most receptive to Feldman’s acute kind of (non-religious) mysticism. Tonight, though, there was rapt attention as John Tilbury guided the solo part through the work’s series of soft, strange episodes. While any kind of conventional concerto set-up is absent from Feldman’s discourse, the piano is nonetheless unmistakably distinct from the orchestra, which often congregates its forces into dense chords and clusters; there’s a strong sense of one versus many, with neither seeming to predominate—indeed, neither seeks to predominate; there’s no overt opposition or conflict between the two. There is tension, though, and a welter of other emotions are inexorably stirred at such evocative but spare material; Feldman’s restraint doesn’t change the fact there’s a lot to take in, in terms of allusive power and weight of expression. Individual notes, a gesture, a short crescendoing cluster: each of these becomes hugely important for the brief time it sounds, which no doubt explains why Feldman’s music, regardless of the work’s duration, is—in the very best way—so demanding, so draining.

John Cage – First Construction (in Metal)

The audio has been removed as a commercial recording is now available.

Programme Note

Cornelius Cardew – Bun No. 1

Programme Note

Howard Skempton – Lento

The audio has been removed as a commercial recording is now available.

Programme Note

Morton Feldman – Piano and Orchestra

The audio has been removed as a commercial recording is now available.

Programme Note


maready August 28, 2010 • 08:26 - 08:26

Thanks for another great Proms 'capture' (and another fine discussion of the evening's program.) I've been waiting for years to hear the Cardew piece and I am very excited to hear John Tilbury in the Feldman piece. (As with the Dillon work, it is indeed hard to imagine this is the UK premiere of 'Piano and Orchestra'!)

5:4 August 28, 2010 • 12:13 - 12:13

It *was* exciting to hear the Cardew, wasn't it? • Ridiculous that his work continues to be so neglected in this country, so one can't miss opportunities like these to hear it! • Makes one reflect on just how much brilliant, unconventional stuff there is out there crying out to be heard in our great concert halls…

maready August 29, 2010 • 07:37 - 07:37

I've listened to the Cardew piece several times now and I think it's a minor masterpiece of its time. What a revelation to hear him writing for a conventional orchestra in the post-serial idiom with such individual results. It's always been frustrating to me that Stockhausen was constitutionally incapable of following on from 'Gruppen' and 'Carré' but now it appears that Cardew, having assisted KS in that work, had something of his own to contribute in a similar vein. And at the same time, the work is quite individual — gratifyingly lyric in an almost Bergian way, beautifully structured and terse — and those repeated staccato chords that keep reappearing are an uncanny premonition of Cage's late 'numbers' pieces.

And (in all of the works on the program — very nice Feldman) Volkov and the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra are superb, totally at ease in a way one could never have imagined had the piece been given in 1965.

Yes, it's time that Cardew's pre-Treatise music was given a commercial recording — previous to this I'd only heard the 'Winter Potatos' piece. I have always valued his contribution with AMM and even had sympathy for his political music at one time, but on the basis of this work I've had to completely re-assess Cardew the composer. Let's hope someone is planning a new CD —

Thanks again for your Proms efforts.

CharmNick August 29, 2010 • 09:16 - 09:16

Hello, Thanks so much for your excellent recording and detailed post. I'd love to hear Bun No.1 but Mediafire seems to have corrupted your FLAC; I've now downloaded it twice and foobar gave up on both, logging 'Error decoding source file (Unsupported format or corrupted file) at 3:06.224'. Best wishes, Nick

5:4 August 29, 2010 • 09:17 - 09:17

@CharmNick i've just downloaded the Cardew FLAC file myself from MediaFire & it plays perfectly with no errors (i used WinAmp) – others have clearly downloaded it with no problems either, so the problem seems to be at your end…

Boom August 29, 2010 • 16:11 - 16:11

This is a splendid concert, indeed. And to hear Cardew – at the time when he, like Stockhausen, "served Imperialism" – that was a treat.
Many thanks!
Can you tell me the source of this recording? Was it Digital Audio Broadcast? FM? or Webcast?

5:4 August 29, 2010 • 16:14 - 16:14

@Boom Glad you enjoyed it! All the recordings are taken from digital satellite (Sky), hence the high quality :-)

Boom August 29, 2010 • 16:28 - 16:28


The sound quality is indeed astounding. Aside from quiet background, the dynamic range is almost 5 db (!!!) greater than the (highly compressed) FM broadcast copy I have.

A gem!

Now I'll put my modem to work on your other offerings from the Proms :))

CharmNick August 29, 2010 • 19:16 - 19:16

Sorry, 5:4, you're quite right – it's a bizarre compatibility thing, whereby Foobar (9.4.3, as I still run Windows 2000 – 'upgrade refusenik') won't play some, I guess 'newer', FLACs – but it'll play part of them before stopping (it's never played 3', though – usually a second or two, sometimes less). Bun seems to play on my vile Vista system. Sorry to waste your time! Great recording, thanks again. N

Ben.H August 30, 2010 • 16:28 - 16:28

Thanks so much for these and the other Proms cuts. I was at this concert and thrilled to find a recording even better than the one I got off iPlayer.


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